|Concrete examples help to understand complex systems. In this report, the
key point is to illustrate the basic mechanisms and properties of neocybernetic system models. Good visualizations are certainly needed.
It is biological systems, or living systems, that are perhaps the most characteristic examples of cybernetic systems. This intuition is extended here to natural systems in general — indeed, it is all other than man-made ones that seem to be cybernetic. The word “biological” in the title should be interpreted as “bio-logical” — referring to general studies of any living systems, independent of the phenosphere. Starting from the concrete examples, connections to more abstract systems are found, and the discussions become more and more all-embracing in this text. However, the neocybernetic model framework still makes it possible to conceptually master the complexity.|